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Psychosom Med. 2007 Feb-Mar;69(2):191-9. Epub 2007 Feb 8.

Effects of age on responsiveness to adjunct hypnotic analgesia during invasive medical procedures.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. susan-lutgendorf@uiowa.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the effects of age on responsiveness to self-hypnotic relaxation as an analgesic adjunct in patients undergoing invasive medical procedures.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Secondary data analysis from a prospective trial with 241 patients randomized to receive hypnosis, attention, and standard care treatment during interventional radiological procedures. Growth curve analyses, hierarchical linear regressions, and logistic regressions using orthogonal contrasts were used for analysis. Outcome measures were Hypnotic Induction Profile scores, self-reported pain and anxiety, medication use, oxygen desaturation < or =89%, and procedure time.

RESULTS:

Hypnotizability did not vary with age (p = .19). Patients receiving attention and hypnosis had greater pain reduction during the procedure (p = .02), with trends toward lower pain with hypnosis (p = .07); this did not differ by age. As age increased, patients experienced more rapid pain control with hypnosis (p = .03). There was more rapid anxiety reduction with attention and hypnosis (p = .03). Trends toward lower final anxiety were also observed with attention and hypnosis versus standard care (p = .08), and with hypnosis versus attention (p = .059); these relationships did not differ by age. Patients requested and received less medication and had less oxygen desaturation < or =89% with attention and hypnosis (p < .001); this did not differ by age. However, as age increased, oxygen desaturation was greater in standard care (p = .03). Procedure time was reduced in the attention and hypnosis groups (p = .007); this did not vary by age.

CONCLUSIONS:

Older patients are hypnotizable and increasing age does not appear to mitigate the usefulness of hypnotic analgesia during invasive medical procedures.

PMID:
17289823
DOI:
10.1097/PSY.0b013e31803133ea
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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