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J Cell Biochem. 2007 Aug 1;101(5):1301-15.

Subcellular localization of ankyrin repeats cofactor-1 regulates its corepressor activity.

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Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-5635, USA.


The ankyrin repeats cofactor-1 (ANCO-1) was recently identified as a novel nuclear receptor corepressor that regulates receptor-mediated transcription through interactions with p160 coactivators and histone deacetylases. Interestingly, exogenously expressed ANCO-1 is localized at distinct subnuclear domains. The relevance of these subnuclear domains and the mechanisms of nucleocytoplasmic translocation of ANCO-1 have not been determined. We report here the identification of an N-terminal signaling motif that is essential for both nuclear/subnuclear localization and transcription corepressor function of ANCO-1. This N-terminal motif at residues 80-86 of ANCO-1 constitutes a classical nuclear localization signal (NLS1). Disruption of NLS1 causes complete cytoplasmic accumulation of the full-length ANCO-1, and abolishes its corepressor function on receptor-mediated transcription. A second NLS (NLS2) is found at the C-terminal residues 2384-2390; however, its disruption abolishes only nuclear localization of isolated C-terminal fragments. We also identify a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) at residues 2415-2424 of ANCO-1, and show that both the NLSs and NES sequences are capable of mediating nuclear import and export of heterologous protein, respectively. In addition, attachment of the NES sequence to a transcription factor impairs its activation function. These results suggest that ANCO-1 subnuclear localization is regulated by both nuclear import and export signals, and that proper subcellular localization of ANCO-1 is essential for its corepressor function.

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