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J Prim Prev. 2007 Mar;28(2):93-115. Epub 2007 Feb 6.

The effects of city-wide implementation of "second step" on elementary school students' prosocial and aggressive behaviors.

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Injury Prevention Center, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT 06106, USA.


This study examined the impact of implementing Second Step, a violence prevention program, using a comprehensive, city-wide approach. The evaluation included 741 3rd-5th graders in six schools. Student surveys, behavioral observations, and discipline referrals were used to assess aggressive-antisocial and prosocial behaviors. We found significant improvements in positive approach-coping, caring-cooperative behavior, suppression of aggression, and consideration of others, but no changes in aggressive-antisocial behaviors. Behavioral observations and disciplinary referrals showed no significant changes. The program was implemented with high fidelity and engaged a wide range of participants from the community.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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