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Int J Cancer. 2007 May 1;120(9):2044-6.

Maternal smoking and the epidemic of testicular cancer--a nested case-control study.

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Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.


For no apparent reason, the incidence of testicular cancer has increased to epidemic proportions in many countries. Pregnancy smoking has been suggested to be a cause. Previous analytical studies have been negative, but the inherent difficulties in retrospective assessment of this exposure have led to no definite conclusion. We have conducted a population-based case-control study on 192 cases of testicular germ-cell cancer-born in Sweden in 1973 onwards and aged >/=15 at cancer diagnosis-and 494 matched controls, where data on maternal smoking were collected during pregnancy. We found no association with testicular cancer for maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.64-1.30), and there was no evidence of a dose-response effect. We conclude that the epidemic rise in testicular cancer in many populations is not due to the surge in smoking among women.

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