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Carcinogenesis. 2007 Jun;28(6):1259-63. Epub 2007 Feb 2.

Genetic variability in prostaglandin synthesis, fish intake and risk of colorectal polyps.

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Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.


Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can be converted to prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Metabolism of omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs results in the production of pro-inflammatory mediators whereas downstream products of omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs have lower inflammatory activity. Elevated n-3 PUFA intake from dietary fish may be associated with lower risk of colorectal neoplasia among those with genetic variants resulting in higher levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. We investigated interactions between dietary fish intake and polymorphisms in cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, ALOX5 and PGIS in a case-control study of adenomas (N = 522), hyperplastic polyps (N = 194) and polyp-free controls (N = 626). Polyp risk did not differ by fish intake. A suggested interaction with fish intake was observed for COX-1 P17L. Among those who were homozygous wild type, increasing fish intake was associated with a modestly reduced risk of adenoma, whereas among those with at least one variant allele, the reverse trend was observed (p-interaction = 0.08). The interaction was statistically significant when non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use was also taken into account: among those with COX-1 17PP genotypes, high fish intake and regular NSAID use was associated with a decreased risk compared with low fish intake and low NSAID use (odds ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.33-1.09). The opposite association was observed among those with COX-1 17PL or LL genotypes (p-interaction = 0.04). Our results suggest that the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA intake and NSAID use may differ by genetic variation in COX-1.

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