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Semin Immunol. 2007 Feb;19(1):24-32. Epub 2007 Feb 1.

TLR signaling.

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Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, Japan.


The TLR family senses the molecular signatures of microbial pathogens, and plays a fundamental role in innate immune responses. TLRs signal via a common pathway that leads to the expression of diverse inflammatory genes. In addition, each TLR elicits specific cellular responses to pathogens owing to differential usage of intracellular adapter proteins. Recent studies have revealed the importance of the subcellular localization of TLRs in pathogen recognition and signaling. TLR signaling pathways is negatively regulated by a number of cellular proteins to attenuate inflammation. Here, we describe recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of TLR-mediated signaling.

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