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J Periodontol. 2007 Feb;78(2):351-9.

Tobacco as a risk factor for survival of dental implants.

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Department of Periodontology, University of Murcia, University Clinic of Dentistry, Murcia, Spain.



It has been shown that smoking habits represent an increased risk for impaired bone healing and implant failure. This study aimed to evaluate the implant survival rates among non-smokers (NS) and different kinds of smokers (S).


A retrospective analysis was made over a 5-year period of the clinical and radiographic findings corresponding to 66 consecutive patients who had received a total of 165 dental implants. Patients were divided into two groups: S, 40 patients (95 implants; 58% of the sample); and NS, 26 patients (70 implants; 42% of the sample). Also, S and NS were classified into four different categories according to daily tobacco use: NS, 26 patients and 70 implants; light smokers (LS), 23 patients and 44 implants; moderate smokers (MS), 11 patients and 25 implants; and heavy smokers (HS), six patients and 26 implants.


Sixteen implants (9.7%) failed and had to be removed. Group S showed 15 failures and a success rate of 84.2%. Group NS had only one failure, giving a success rate of 98.6%. The risk of implant failure was approximately 31% in those who smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day. HS showed statistical differences from NS or LS. However, they did not show any differences from MS.


Within the limits of the present study, the use of tobacco involves a 15.8% risk of implant failure, with a 13.1 odds ratio. LS or MS tobacco use involves a 10.1% relative risk of implant loss, whereas the consumption of >20 cigarettes per day increases this risk to 30.8%.

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