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J Bras Pneumol. 2006 Jan-Feb;32(1):48-55.

Prevalence of and factors related to tuberculosis in seropositive human immunodeficiency virus patients at a reference center for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus in the southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

[Article in English, Portuguese]

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Internal Medicine Department, Fundação Universidade do Rio Grande, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.



In view of the relevance of co-infection with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus, this study was designed to determine tuberculosis prevalence and identify factors related to tuberculosis in patients residing in a region in which both infections are highly prevalent.


All patients treated during 1999 at the HIV/AIDS Clinic of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (Rio Grande Federal University) University Hospital were evaluated retrospectively, from the time of human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis, in terms of the incidence of tuberculosis and its relationship to sociodemographic, behavioral and immunological factors.


The sample included 204 patients, and tuberculosis prevalence was found to be 27%. The multivariate analysis showed a significant correlation between the development of tuberculosis and being of African descent (odds ratio: 4.76; 95% confidence interval: 1.93-11.72) and an inverse correlation between the development of tuberculosis and the TCD4+ lymphocyte count at the time of human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis (odds ratio: 0.995; 95% confidence interval: 0.993-0.997). When analyzed separately, other variables were found to be potential risk factors: being of the male gender (odds ratio: 2.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-5.39); and using illicit drugs (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-4.31).


The factors responsible for the development of tuberculosis among patients who are human immunodeficiency virus seropositive include immunological, socioeconomic and demographic factors. The high rate of tuberculosis prevalence among the seropositive patients underscores the urgent need to implement strategies that combine rapid identification and prompt treatment of individuals with active or latent infection, as well as of those with whom they have been in contact.

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