Send to

Choose Destination
Urology. 2007 Jan;69(1):166-9.

Gross hematuria in children: a ten-year review.

Author information

Department of Pediatric Urology, Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14222, USA.



Gross hematuria in children is uncommon. We reviewed our experience characterizing its clinical presentation and diagnosis.


The charts of all patients who presented for the 10-year period of 1994 through 2003 were reviewed, and 342 patients were identified. Of these 342 patients, 272 were boys (80%) and 70 (20%) were girls. At presentation, 21 patients (6%) were younger than 3 years (17 were boys and 4 were girls); 199 (58%) were 3 to 12 years old (155 were boys and 44 were girls); and 122 (36%) were 13 to 20 years old (100 were boys and 22 were girls).


Of the 272 male patients, 52 (19%) had benign urethrorrhagia; 48 (14%) had trauma; and 48 had a urinary tract infection (14%), and 10 of those also had urologic anomalies. Of the 342 patients, 45 (13%) had one or more congenital urologic anomalies. Of these 45 patients, 20 boys and 2 girls had vesicoureteral reflux, 10 boys had posterior urethral valves, 7 boys and 1 girl had ureteropelvic junction obstruction, 7 boys had proximal hypospadias, 2 boys and 1 girl had ureterovesical junction obstruction, 2 boys and 1 girl had ureterocele, and 1 boy had caliceal diverticulum. Also, 18 patients (5%) had stones; 3 had low-grade bladder transitional cell carcinoma; and 1 had a Wilms tumor. For 118 patients (34%; 95 boys and 23 girls), no etiology was found.


Gross hematuria most often had a benign cause in children and adolescents. It was more common in boys for almost all etiologic categories and ages. The extent of the urologic evaluation should depend on the clinical setting. Voiding cystourethrography is useful in those with suspicious ultrasound findings, urinary tract infection, or voiding symptoms. Cystoscopy should be reserved for the minority in whom hematuria persists or those with ambiguous imaging study findings.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center