Send to

Choose Destination
J Food Prot. 2007 Jan;70(1):218-22.

Carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, oregano oil, and thymol inhibit Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in ground turkey during chilling.

Author information

Microbial Food Safety Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania 19038, USA.


Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens by plant-derived carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and oregano oil was evaluated during abusive chilling of cooked ground turkey. Test substances were mixed into thawed turkey product at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% (wt/wt) along with a heat-activated three-strain C. perfringens spore cocktail to obtain final spore concentrations of ca. 2.2 to 2.8 log CFU spores per g of turkey meat. Aliquots (5 g) of the ground turkey mixtures were vacuum packaged and then cooked in a water bath, where the temperature was raised to 60 degrees C in I h. The products were cooled from 54.4 to 7.2 degrees C in 12, 15, 18, or 21 h, resulting in 2.9-, 5.5-, 4.9-, and 4.2-log CFU/g increases, respectively, in C. perfringens populations in samples without antimicrobials. Incorporation of test compounds (0.1 to 0.5%) into the turkey completely inhibited C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth (P < or = 0.05) during exponential cooling in 12 h. Longer chilling times (15, 18, and 21 h) required greater concentrations (0.5 to 2.0%) to inhibit spore germination and outgrowth. Cinnamaldehyde was significantly (P < 0.05) more effective (<1.0-log CFU/g growth) than the other compounds at a lower concentration (0.5%) at the most abusive chilling rate evaluated (21 h). These findings establish the value of the plant-derived antimicrobials for inhibiting C. perfringens in commercial ground turkey products.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center