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AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 Jan;23(1):175-80.

HIV type 1 diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Burundi.

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  • 1UMR145, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement and University of Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France.


In 2002, an HIV surveillance study was performed among more than 5500 individuals representing the general population of urban and rural districts in Burundi. In this report, we genetically characterized a subset of the HIV-1-positive samples identified during this survey, including all the HIV-positive samples from Bujumbura, the capital city, and samples from one semiurban and one rural district. One hundred and nineteen samples were genetically characterized in the V3-V5 region of the env gene and/or in the protease and reverse transcriptase region of the pol gene. Phylogenetic analysis of 101 env/pol sequences revealed that the HIV-1 epidemic in Burundi was driven by subtype C (81.2%), followed by subtype A (7.9 %) and polC/envA recombinants (5.9%). One major mutation associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in the pol gene, as defined by the International AIDS Society Resistance Testing-USA panel, was observed in one individual, but many minor resistance-associated mutations were also present in the majority of the samples.

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