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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov;1089:14-35.

Timing of dietary estrogenic exposures and breast cancer risk.

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Department of Oncology, Georgetown University, Research Building E407, 3970 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA.


The same dietary component, such as fat or phytochemicals in plant foods, can have an opposite effect on breast cancer risk if exposed in utero through a pregnant mother or at puberty. Dietary exposures during pregnancy often have similar effects on breast cancer risk among mothers and their female offspring. High fat intake and obesity are illustrative examples: excessive pregnancy weight gain that increases high birth weight is associated with increased breast cancer risk among mothers and daughters. High body weight during childhood is inversely linked to later breast cancer risk. The main reason why the age when dietary exposures occur determines their effect on breast cancer risk likely reflects the extensive programming of the mammary gland during fetal life and subsequent reprogramming at puberty and pregnancy. Programming is a series of epigenetic/transcriptional modifications in gene expression that can be influenced by changes in the hormonal environment induced, for example, by diet. Because epigenetic modifications are inherited by daughter cells, they can persist throughout life if they occur in mammary stem cells or uncommitted mammary myoepithelial or luminal progenitor cells. Our results indicate that the estrogen receptor (ER), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the tumor suppressors BRCA1, p53, and caveolin-1 are among the genes affected by diet-induced alterations in programming/reprogramming. Consequently, mammary gland morphology may be altered in a manner that increases or reduces susceptibility to malignant transformation, including an increase/reduction in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, or in the number of terminal end buds (TEBs) or pregnancy-induced mammary epithelial cells (PI-MECs) that are the sites where breast cancer is initiated. Thus, dietary exposures during pregnancy and puberty may play an important role in determining later risk by inducing epigenetic changes that modify vulnerability to breast cancer.

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