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Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007 Feb;232(2):184-94.

Exercise and humoral mediators of peripheral energy balance: ghrelin and adiponectin.

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Southeastern Louisiana University, Department of Kinesiology and Health Studies, SLU 10845, Hammond, LA 70401 USA.


Ghrelin and adiponectin are recently discovered peptides that are both associated with energy homeostasis and insulin action. In addition, circulating levels of both peptides are altered in obese populations and are associated with poor health. Moreover, expression of ghrelin and adiponectin returns to normal levels following weight loss in obese patients. Because exercise training improves the health status of obese individuals and is associated with reduction of body weight, there is interest in the effects of exercise on adiponectin and ghrelin and whether these peptides may provide better understanding of how exercise improves health. Ghrelin levels do not increase in response to acute running and cycling in humans, and therefore ghrelin does not appear to regulate growth hormone (GH) release during exercise. There is some evidence that ghrelin levels are suppressed following resistance exercise of moderate intensity and are lower with higher GH concentrations during aerobic exercise. It has been suggested that negative feedback from elevated GH produces the reductions, but why these responses have not been consistently found in other studies and whether postexercise reduction in ghrelin affects appetite warrants further investigation. There are a few studies (but not all) that suggest long-term chronic exercise produces increases in ghrelin levels when weight loss is produced. Ghrelin levels are much higher in amenorrheic athletes than in ovulating exercisers or in female exercisers with a luteal phase defect, suggesting an association with reproductive function. Adiponectin concentrations do not change in response to moderate and strenuous running or low- and moderate- intensity cycling. Most studies have revealed that chronic exercise that improves fitness levels, increases insulin sensitivity, and reduces body weight, will increase resting adiponectin levels. However, it does not appear that changes in insulin sensitivity brought about by moderate exercise training are attributable to adiponectin.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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