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J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Feb;107(2):256-64.

Dairy consumption and related nutrient intake in African-American adults and children in the United States: continuing survey of food intakes by individuals 1994-1996, 1998, and the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000.

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Nutrition Impact, LLC, Battle Creek, MI, USA.



To establish the first baseline of dairy and related nutrient intake in African Americans, an at-risk population of public health concern in the United States. To document dairy consumption in African Americans by age and sex during 1994-1998 and 1999-2000 and compare it with concomitant dairy, calcium, and related nutrient intakes in non-African-American adults and children.


Duplicate and single 24-hour recalls were analyzed to determine dietary intake during the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-1996, 1998 (CSFII), and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000 (NHANES), respectively.


African Americans and non-African Americans of all ages who participated in CSFII 1994-1996, 1998, and in NHANES 1999-2000; both surveys are a stratified random sample of the total civilian, noninstitutionalized US population.


Dairy food and nutrient intake per day were quantified according to age, sex, and ethnicity/race from CSFII 1994-1996, 1998, and NHANES 1999-2000. For NHANES, mean intakes from 1-day food records were sample-weighted, and standard errors estimated by the Taylor linearization method of SUDAAN (version 9.0, 2004, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC). Usual daily intakes of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus were based on 2-day intake data from CSFII 1994-1996, 1998, and calculated using Software for Intake Distribution from Iowa State University. The percentage of individuals categorized as not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement for magnesium and phosphorus were calculated in the same way.


CSFII 1994-1996, 1998, and NHANES 1999-2000 data both show that African Americans in all age groups consume fewer mean servings per day of total dairy, milk, cheese, and yogurt than non-African Americans, and have lower mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Significant differences were seen for men and women.


In this analysis, young African-American women did not meet Dietary Reference Intakes for phosphorus, and all African Americans did not meet Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium and magnesium. African Americans in all age groups did not meet dairy recommendations from the 2005 US Dietary Guidelines and the 2004 National Medical Association Consensus Report on the role of dairy and dairy nutrients in the diet of African Americans.

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