Send to

Choose Destination
Trends Immunol. 2007 Mar;28(3):132-7. Epub 2007 Jan 26.

VH replacement in mice and humans.

Author information

Division of Developmental and Clinical Immunology, Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.


Heavy chain variable segment (V(H)) replacement refers to recombination activating gene (RAG) product-mediated secondary recombination between a previously rearranged V(H) gene and an upstream unrearranged V(H) gene. V(H) replacement was first observed in mouse pre-B cell lines and later demonstrated in knock-in mouse models carrying immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes encoding self-reactive or mono-specific antibodies or non-functional IgH rearrangements on both IgH alleles. Despite these findings, it is still difficult to find V(H) replacement intermediates during normal murine B cell development. In humans, ongoing V(H) replacement was found in a clonal B lineage EU12 cell line and in human bone marrow immature B cells. The identification of potential V(H) replacement products also suggested a potential contribution of V(H) replacement to the antibody repertoire. Here, I review the evidence for whether V(H) replacement genuinely offers an in vivo RAG-mediated recombinatorial mechanism to alter preformed IgH genes in mice and humans.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center