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Crit Care Med. 2007 Mar;35(3):827-35.

Assessing contemporary intensive care unit outcome: an updated Mortality Probability Admission Model (MPM0-III).

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Critical Care Division, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA, USA.



To update the Mortality Probability Model at intensive care unit (ICU) admission (MPM0-II) using contemporary data.


Retrospective analysis of data from 124,855 patients admitted to 135 ICUs at 98 hospitals participating in Project IMPACT between 2001 and 2004. Independent variables considered were 15 MPM0-II variables, time before ICU admission, and code status. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify risk factors associated with hospital mortality.


One hundred thirty-five ICUs at 98 hospitals.


Patients in the Project IMPACT database eligible for MPM0-II scoring.




Hospital mortality rate in the current data set was 13.8% vs. 20.8% in the MPM0-II cohort. All MPM0-II variables remained associated with mortality. Clinical conditions with high relative risks in MPM0-II also had high relative risks in MPM0-III. Gastrointestinal bleeding is now associated with lower mortality risk. Two factors have been added to MPM0-III: "full code" resuscitation status at ICU admission, and "zero factor" (absence of all MPM0-II risk factors except age). Seven two-way interactions between MPM0-II variables and age were included and reflect the declining marginal contribution of acute and chronic medical conditions to mortality risk with increasing age. Lead time before ICU admission and pre-ICU location influenced individual outcomes but did not improve model discrimination or calibration. MPM0-III calibrates well by graphic comparison of actual vs. expected mortality, overall standardized mortality ratio (1.018; 95% confidence interval, 0.996-1.040) and a low Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic (11.62; p = .31). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.823.


MPM0-II risk factors remain relevant in predicting ICU outcome, but the 1993 model significantly overpredicts mortality in contemporary practice. With the advantage of a much larger sample size and the addition of new variables and interaction effects, MPM0-III provides more accurate comparisons of actual vs. expected ICU outcomes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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