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Neuroimage. 2007 Apr 1;35(2):648-54. Epub 2007 Jan 24.

Pre-frontal lobe gyrification index in schizophrenia, mental retardation and comorbid groups: an automated study.

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Division of Psychiatry, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Kennedy Tower, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh EH10 5HF, UK.


In this paper, we describe the application of an automated method of calculating Gyrification Index (GI) - the Automated GI (A-GI) - to a total of 95 age-matched and sex-matched patients with mental retardation, schizophrenia, comorbid mental retardation and schizophrenia and controls. The results given by the A-GI program show that subjects with mental retardation possessed the lowest GI values in the pre-frontal lobes, with comorbid and schizophrenia groups being midway between this and the controls. The results showed no significant difference in pre-frontal gyrification between the schizophrenia and the comorbid groups. Although the four groups showed a similar pattern of (spatial) differences in terms of pre-frontal lobe volume, this did not solely account for the differences in A-GI. A significant negative correlation between GI and age was also observed across all four groups. These findings suggest that people with schizophrenia have reduced pre-frontal cortical folding regardless of whether or not they have low IQ. Previous studies in the same cohort have suggested that individuals comorbid for schizophrenia and mental retardation may in fact suffer from severe schizophrenia which has led to their low IQ. The pattern of differences observed in the current study supports this view.

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