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Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007 Mar 15;267(1-2):6-16. Epub 2006 Dec 16.

Regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-Ialpha) gene expression by the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1) isoforms.

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Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 874 Union Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.


The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivators (PGC-1) have important roles in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic control in a variety of tissues. There are multiple isoforms of PGC-1 including PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta. Both the PGC-1alpha and beta isoforms promote mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, but only PGC-1alpha stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) is a key enzyme regulating mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. In these studies, we determined that PGC-1beta stimulated expression of the "liver" isoform of CPT-I (CPT-Ialpha) but that PGC-1beta did not induce pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) which is a regulator of pyruvate metabolism. The CPT-Ialpha gene is induced by thyroid hormone. We found that T3 increased the expression of PGC-1beta and that PGC-1beta enhanced the T3 induction of CPT-Ialpha. The thyroid hormone receptor interacts with PGC-1beta in a ligand dependent manner. Unlike PGC-1alpha, the interaction of PGC-1beta and the T3 receptor does not occur exclusively through the leucine-X-X-leucine-leucine motif in PGC-1beta. We have found that PGC-1beta is associated with the CPT-Ialpha gene in vivo. Overall, our results demonstrate that PGC-1beta is a coactivator in the T3 induction of CPT-Ialpha and that PGC-1beta has similarities and differences with the PGC-1alpha isoform.

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