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Prev Med. 2007 Apr;44(4):328-34. Epub 2007 Jan 17.

Alcohol intake, smoking, sleeping hours, physical activity and the metabolic syndrome.

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Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.



To evaluate the association between physical activity, sleeping hours, alcohol intake and smoking and metabolic syndrome.


Social, demographic, personal and family medical histories and behavioral characteristics were collected as self-reported for 2164 participants (1332 women; 832 men), aged 18-92 years old, randomly selected during 1999-2003, among residents in Porto, Portugal, evaluated in the Department of Epidemiology of Porto Medical School. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the NCEP-ATPIII. Associations between metabolic syndrome and lifestyles factors were computed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).


After adjustment, higher total physical activity (OR=0.63 95% CI%: 0.43, 0.94--females; OR=0.55 95% CI: 0.33, 0.91--males) and work activity levels in females (OR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.91) were significantly associated with lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. More sleeping hours were positively associated with metabolic syndrome (OR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.38--females; OR=1.19; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.36--males). Regarding smoking, the only statistically significant association was found in women that smoked less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR=0.32 95% CI: 0.11, 0.92). No statistically significant association was found between ethanol intake and metabolic syndrome.


An association between decreased physical activity, increased sleeping hours and metabolic syndrome was found. No association was found between cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and the metabolic syndrome.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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