Send to

Choose Destination
Gait Posture. 2007 Oct;26(4):546-52. Epub 2007 Jan 16.

The effect of excessive tibial torsion on the capacity of muscles to extend the hip and knee during single-limb stance.

Author information

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


Excessive tibial torsion, a rotational deformity about the long axis of the tibia, is common in patients with cerebral palsy who walk with a crouch gait. Previous research suggests that this deformity may contribute to crouch gait by reducing the capacity of soleus to extend the knee; however, the effects of excess external torsion on the capacity of other muscles to extend the stance limb during walking are unknown. A computer model of the musculoskeletal system was developed to simulate a range of tibial torsion deformities. A dynamic analysis was then performed to determine the effect of these deformities on the capacity of lower limb muscles to extend the hip and knee at body positions corresponding to the single-limb stance phase of a normal gait cycle. Analysis of the model confirmed that excessive external torsion reduces the extension capacity of soleus. In addition, our analysis revealed that several important muscles crossing the hip and knee are also adversely affected by excessive tibial torsion. With a tibial torsion deformity of 30 degrees , the capacities of soleus, posterior gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus to extend both the hip and knee were all reduced by over 10%. Since a tibial torsion deformity reduces the capacity of muscles to extend the hip and knee, it may be a significant contributor to crouch gait, especially when greater than 30 degrees from normal, and thus should be considered by clinicians when making treatment decisions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center