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BJU Int. 2007 Jan;99 Suppl 1:13-6; discussion 17-8.

Global update on defining and treating high-risk localized prostate cancer with leuprorelin: a USA perspective--identifying men at diagnosis who are at high risk of prostate cancer death after surgery or radiation therapy.

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  • 1Genitourinary Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.


Prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSA-DT) after surgery or radiotherapy (RT) is known to be a predictive factor for death from prostate cancer (prostate cancer-specific mortality, PCSM). An analysis of two multi-institutional databases, including 8669 men with prostate cancer treated with surgery or RT, found that a PSA-DT of <3 months, and the specific value of the PSA-DT when > or = 3 months, appeared to be surrogate endpoints for PCSM after surgery or RT. While many PSA failures occur after local therapy for localized prostate cancer, few of these patients go on to die from their disease, so it is important to identify other factors associated with PCSM, so that the subgroup of high-risk patients can be identified. An analysis was undertaken to determine whether patients at risk of PCSM could be identified using information available at diagnosis. The results showed that risk factors for PCSM were a PSA velocity of >2.0 ng/mL/year, a Gleason score of 8-10 and an increasing PSA level. However, the most important risk factor that had an impact on both PCSM and all-cause mortality was a PSA velocity of >2.0 ng/mL/year. PSA kinetics are being increasingly used in the setting of rising PSA levels after radical prostatectomy or RT, and several studies showed that the rate of increase in PSA level at the time of recurrence is closely associated with time to cancer death. A PSA-DT of <3 months is associated with a poor prognosis, and represents 15-20% of PSA failures in the general population and 6-7% of PSA failures in a screened population, such as those included in clinical trials. Better risk-assessment models are needed to help to identify at an early stage men who are at high risk of prostate cancer death and those who are at low risk, so that each subgroup can receive the most appropriate therapy for their disease.

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