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Immunol Cell Biol. 2007 Apr-May;85(3):249-56. Epub 2007 Jan 16.

Tyrosine kinase Syk associates with toll-like receptor 4 and regulates signaling in human monocytic cells.

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Biosciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA.


Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induces an innate immune response in mammals by recognizing lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we show that tyrosine kinase Syk constitutively associates with TLR4 in THP-1 cells. As previously reported in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, TLR4 gets inducibly tyrosine phosphorylated upon LPS engagement in THP-1 cells. Piceatannol, a pharmacological inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase Syk, abrogates TLR4 tyrosine phosphorylation at low doses. The kinetics of TLR4 tyrosine phosphorylation in THP-1 cells coincides with an early wave of Syk tyrosine phosphorylation. Additionally, serine threonine kinase interleukin-1 (IL1) receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) is transiently recruited to the complex containing adaptor molecule MyD88, TLR4 and Syk within 1 min of LPS engagement and dissociates by 30 min. Finally, the inhibition of Syk with piceatannol has no effect on LPS-mediated release of cytokines IL6, IL1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, neither on chemokines macrophage inhibitory protein (MIP)1alpha, MIP1beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein -1, IL8, Groalpha and RANTES. However, IL10 and IL12p40 releases are significantly inhibited. Our findings implicate Syk as a novel modulator of LPS-mediated TLR4 responses in human monocytic cells and shed insight into the kinetics of early complex formation upon LPS engagement.

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