Send to

Choose Destination
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2007 May-Jun;30(3):455-61.

Porcine transfer study: virtual reality simulator training compared with porcine training in endovascular novices.

Author information

Department of Interventional Radiology, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.



To compare the learning of endovascular interventional skills by training on pig models versus virtual reality simulators.


Twelve endovascular novices participated in a study consisting of a pig laboratory (P-Lab) and a virtual reality laboratory (VR-Lab). Subjects were stratified by experience and randomized into four training groups. Following 1 hr of didactic instruction, all attempted an iliac artery stenosis (IAS) revascularization in both laboratories. Onsite proctors evaluated performances using task-specific checklists and global rating scales, yielding a Total Score. Participants completed two training sessions of 3 hr each, using their group's assigned method (P-Lab x 2, P-Lab + VR-Lab, VR-Lab + P-Lab, or VR-Lab x 2) and were re-evaluated in both laboratories. A panel of two highly experienced interventional radiologists performed assessments from video recordings. ANCOVA analysis of Total Score against years of surgical, interventional radiology (IR) experience and cumulative number of P-Lab or VR-Lab sessions was conducted. Inter-rater reliability (IRR) was determined by comparing proctored scores with the video assessors in only the VR-Lab.


VR-Lab sessions improved the VR-Lab Total Score (beta = 3.029, p = 0.0015) and P-Lab Total Score (beta = 1.814, p = 0.0452). P-Lab sessions increased the P-Lab Total Score (beta = 4.074, p < 0.0001) but had no effect on the VR-Lab Total Score. In the general statistical model, both P-Lab sessions (beta = 2.552, p = 0.0010) and VR-Lab sessions (beta = 2.435, p = 0.0032) significantly improved Total Score. Neither previous surgical experience nor IR experience predicted Total Score. VR-Lab scores were consistently higher than the P-Lab scores (Delta = 6.659, p < 0.0001). VR-Lab IRR was substantial (r = 0.649, p < 0.0008).


Endovascular skills learned in the virtual environment may be transferable to the real catheterization laboratory as modeled in the P-Lab.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center