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Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2007 May;18(5):555-63. Epub 2007 Jan 17.

Xenograft use in reconstructive pelvic surgery: a review of the literature.

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  • 1Division of Gynecologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.


Xenografts, bovine or porcine acellular collagen bioprostheses derived from dermis, pericardium, or small-intestine submucosa, were introduced to overcome synthetic mesh-related complications. Although there are eight commercially available xenografts, there is a paucity of empiric information to justify their use instead of the use of synthetic grafts. In addition, limited data are available about which graft characteristics are important and whether graft-reinforced repairs reduce recurrences and improve outcomes. To address these knowledge gaps, we conducted a Medline search of published reports on xenografts in animal and human trials. Histologic host response to implanted xenograft material depends primarily on chemical cross-linking and porosity, and it is limited to four responses: resorption, incorporation, encapsulation, and mixed. No clinical data unequivocally demonstrate an improved benefit to graft-reinforced repair.

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