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Clin Exp Immunol. 2007 Feb;147(2):227-35.

Chronic inflammation: importance of NOD2 and NALP3 in interleukin-1beta generation.

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Department of Gastroenterology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.


Inflammation is part of the non-specific immune response that occurs in reaction to any type of bodily injury. In some disorders, the inflammatory process - which under normal conditions is self-limiting - becomes continuous and chronic inflammatory diseases might develop subsequently. Pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) represent a diverse collection of molecules responsible for sensing danger signals, and together with other immune components they are involved in the first line of defence. NALP3 and NOD2, which belong to a cytosolic subgroup of PRMs, dubbed Nod-like-receptors (NLRs), have been associated recently with inflammatory diseases, specifically Crohn's disease and Blau syndrome (NOD2) and familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome and chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome (NALP3). The exact effects of the defective proteins are not fully understood, but activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, transcription, production and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1beta and activation of the inflammasome are some of the processes that might hold clues, and the present review will provide a thorough update in this area.

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