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Addiction. 2007 Feb;102(2):324-34.

Smoking in the absence of nicotine: behavioral, subjective and physiological effects over 11 days.

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1
Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. edonny@pitt.edu

Abstract

AIMS:

Sensorimotor stimuli associated with tobacco smoking influence smoking behavior; however, current research has focused almost exclusively on the effects of brief, laboratory-based exposure to smoking-related stimuli. The purpose of this experiment was to characterize the effects of smoking stimuli delivered in the absence of nicotine over an extended (11-day) exposure.

DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:

Thirty adult regular smokers participated in an in-patient study. After assessing preferred brand smoking, participants were assigned randomly to one of three groups corresponding to subsequent smoking conditions: nicotine-containing cigarettes, de-nicotinized cigarettes or no smoking.

MEASUREMENTS:

Measures of smoking reinforcement, subjective effects, physiological effects, withdrawal/craving and puff topography were taken repeatedly during both periods of free access and controlled assessments during abstinence.

FINDINGS:

Daily de-nicotinized cigarette use declined immediately by 1.7 cigarettes/day compared to the preferred brand baseline and declined by another 3.5 cigarettes over time; participants smoking de-nicotinized cigarettes also demonstrated a 31% decline in the number of puffs earned on a progressive ratio, a measure of the motivation to smoke, during the study. Subjective ratings of smoking were largely negative throughout the study in the de-nicotinized group, while the nicotine-containing condition reported increasingly positive subjective effects with repeated exposure. Acute craving suppression following smoking remained evident throughout the study regardless of nicotine content.

CONCLUSIONS:

These effects highlight the importance of non-nicotine sensorimotor stimuli as determinants of the maintenance of smoking behavior and suggests that extinction of conditioned reinforcement in the absence of nicotine progresses slowly.

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