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Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2007 Jul;34(7):1088-96. Epub 2007 Jan 12.

Normal limits of ejection fraction and volumes determined by gated SPECT in clinically normal patients without cardiac events: a study based on the J-ACCESS database.

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  • 1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa University Hospital, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8641, Japan.



Quantitative gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is known to have high accuracy and precision for measurement of the principal cardiac functional parameters. We hypothesised that normal values for EF and LV volumes may differ among nationalities, and that optimal threshold values specific to the study population are required.


Among 4,670 consecutively registered patients for a J-ACCESS (Japanese investigation regarding prognosis based on gated SPECT) study from 117 hospitals, a total of 268 (149 women, 119 men) were selected who had no baseline cardiac diseases and had experienced no cardiac events during the preceding 3-year period. A gated SPECT study was performed with 99mTc-tetrofosmin and analysed with Cedars Sinai Medical Center's quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software. The results in respect of ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and stroke volume (SV), and EDV, ESV and SV normalised by body surface area (EDVI, ESVI and SVI), were calculated and summarised to obtain normal limits.


EF for women and men was 74 +/- 9% and 63 +/- 7%, respectively (p < 0.0001). EDV, ESV and SV were significantly smaller in women than in men. Based on multiple regressions for linear models, the primary and secondary predictors of EF, EDVI, ESVI were gender and age. By stepwise multiple regression analysis, a statistically significant third predictor for EDV, ESV, SV and SVI was body weight. No colinearity was found between age and body weight. Important factors for the studied Japanese population included a high incidence of small hearts in women and the relatively advanced age of the population (the mean age +/-SD was 64.1 +/- 10.0 years for women and 60.9 +/- 11.7 years for men).


EF and volumes determined by gated SPECT with QGS were significantly affected by gender and age, with body weight as a third predictor for volumes. Moreover, the normal limits were so specific for the population studied that standards appropriate for the study in question should be utilised.

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