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Cell Death Differ. 2007 May;14(5):1001-10. Epub 2007 Jan 12.

c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediates hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death via sustained poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation.

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Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been closely associated with both apoptotic and non-apoptotic/necrotic cell death. Our previous study has illustrated that c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is the main executor in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced nonapoptotic cell death. The main objective of this study is to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms downstream of JNK1 in H(2)O(2)-induced cell death. In this study, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a key DNA repair protein, was readily activated by H(2)O(2) and inhibition of PARP-1 activation by either a pharmacological or genetic approach offered significant protection against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death. More importantly, H(2)O(2)-mediated PARP-1 activation is subject to regulation by JNK1. Suppression of JNK1 activation by a chemical inhibitor or genetic deletion markedly suppressed the late-phase PARP-1 activation induced by H(2)O(2), suggesting that JNK1 contributes to the sustained activation of PARP-1. Such findings were supported by the temporal pattern of nuclear translocation of activated JNK and a direct protein-protein interaction between JNK1 and PARP-1 in H(2)O(2)-treated cells. Finally, in vitro kinase assay suggests that PARP-1 may serve as the direct phosphorylation target for JNK1. Taken together, data from our study reveal a novel underlying mechanism in H(2)O(2)-induced nonapoptotic cell death: JNK1 promotes a sustained PARP-1 activation via nuclear translocation, protein-protein interaction and PARP-1 phosphorylation.

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