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Joint Bone Spine. 2007 Jan;74(1):e1-8. Epub 2006 Dec 4.

Raynaud's phenomenon.

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  • 1Internal Medicine Department, Institut Mutualiste Motnsouris, 42 boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris, France.


Vascular acrosyndromes constitute a common reason for physician visits. They are associated with connective tissue disease; for example, 90% of patients with scleroderma experience Raynaud's phenomenon. The rheumatologist must strive to establish the diagnosis, to identify a potential underlying cause, and to prescribe effective treatment when the symptoms are incapacitating. Raynaud's phenomenon is the acrosyndrome most commonly encountered by rheumatologists. The diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon rests on clinical grounds. Nailfold capillaroscopy and immunological tests are useful chiefly for determining the cause. Calcium-channel antagonists are the treatment of reference for Raynaud's phenomenon. Drugs introduced over the last few years for severe refractory forms include prostacyclin and its derivatives, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. These drugs were developed as a result of new knowledge on the pathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon. Acrocyanosis, which is extremely common, and erythromelalgia are the other main vascular acrosyndromes.

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