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Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Apr;22(4):578-85. Epub 2007 Jan 10.

Prevention of peritonitis in children receiving peritoneal dialysis.

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Section of Pediatric Nephrology, The Children's Mercy Hospital, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.


Peritonitis and catheter-related (exit-site/tunnel) infections are major causes of morbidity in children receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). Our objective was to evaluate the impact of a combination of prophylactic measures on the rate of peritonitis and catheter-related infections subsequent to their implementation in 2001. This is a single center review of incident patients who received automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) from 1997 to 2004. The causal microorganisms, annualized peritonitis and catheter-related infections rates and the time to infection were reviewed using pooled data from 1997 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2004. Fifty-four patients received PD over 1099 patient months (pm). Twenty-eight peritonitis episodes occurred in 15 patients over 599 pm from 1997 to 2000 (annualized rate (AR): 0.56 infections/patient year). Eight episodes of peritonitis occurred in five patients over 500 pm from 2001 to 2004 (AR: 0.19 infections/patient year) (P = 0.01). Prior to 2001, the median time from dialysis initiation to the first peritonitis episode was 500 days (95% CI, 400-660 days), compared to 1137 days (95% CI, 1050 to +Infinity) from 2001 to 2004 (P = 0.008). The rate of catheter-related infections and time to initial infection during the two periods was not different. We conclude that measures to decrease the frequency of peritonitis can be successfully applied to children and should be incorporated as part of standard care.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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