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Ocul Surf. 2004 Apr;2(2):59-75.

New insights into the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye.

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Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Dental College, Ichikawa General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.


Over the past decade, numerous advances have been made in relation to dry eye diagnostic markers, technologies, and treatment options. The mainstay of treatment of dry eye is the use of artificial tear solutions and punctum plugs. A goal is the development of agents that provide symptomatic treatment and, at the same time, improve ocular surface keratinization. It is the authors' opinion that the functional visual acuity tester and the new tear stability analysis system will be widely used to improve diagnosis and evaluate treatment outcomes in KCS. Advances in treatment will utilize anti-inflammatory agents, immune suppressants such as Cyclosporin A and FK-506, growth hormones, androgens, topical mucins and ocular surface stimulating drugs, like INS365. Although aqueous-deficient dry eye is most commonly not associated with Sjogren syndrome (SS), aqueous-deficient dry eye is often most severe in patients with SS; thus, this article focuses mainly on SS-associated dry eye.


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