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Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;145(1):73-85. Epub 2006 Nov 25.

Temporal changes in gene expression in rainbow trout exposed to ethynyl estradiol.

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Battelle, Marine Research Operations, Sequim, WA, USA.


We examined changes in the genomic response during continuous exposure to the xenoestrogen ethynyl estradiol. Isogenic rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to nominal concentrations of 100 ng/L ethynyl estradiol (EE2) for a period of 3 weeks. At fixed time points within the exposure, fish were euthanized, livers harvested and RNA extracted. Fluorescently labeled cDNA were generated and hybridized against a commercially available Salmonid array (GRASP project, University of Victoria, Canada) spotted with 16,000 cDNAs. The slides were scanned to measure abundance of a given transcript in each sample relative to controls. Data were analyzed via Genespring (Silicon Genetics) to identify a list of up and down regulated genes, and to determine gene clustering patterns that can be used as "expression signatures". Gene ontology was determined using the annotation available from the GRASP website. Our analysis indicates each exposure time period generated specific gene expression profiles. Changes in gene expression were best understood by grouping genes by their gene expression profiles rather than examining fold change at a particular time point. Many of the genes commonly used as biomarkers of exposure to xenoestrogens were not induced initially and did not have gene expression profiles typical of the majority of genes with altered expression.

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