Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Theriogenology. 2007 Mar 15;67(5):1022-31. Epub 2007 Jan 9.

Fluorescent in situ hybridization for sex chromosome determination before and after fertilization in mice.

Author information

Department of Biomedical Sciences, 440F Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, 1201 Rollins Road, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.


In mice, the relative numbers of male and female pups per litter not only can vary but can probably change over the course of pregnancy in response to numerous environmental and physiological factors. As such, a technique is required to determine gender at several developmental stages. Here we describe a robust and accurate fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure for determining chromosomal sex that can be applied with minimal modification to sperm, pre-and post-implantation conceptuses and recovered dead post-natal pups. Sperm was prepared for FISH analysis y using a modified microwave decondensation-denaturation technique. Preimplantation conceptuses (0.5dpc) were cultured to the morula stage before sexing. They were then acid-treated to remove the zona pellucida. Tissue homogenates from postimplantational conceptuses (8.5dpc) and stillborn pups were fixed to pre-etched slides. Specimens were hybridized with identical, commercially available DNA probes for the X (FITC) and Y (Cy3) chromosomes. Sperm ratios met the expected value of 0.5 when determined by using XY FISH. Preimplantation conceptuses pre-treated with pepsin yielded distinct fluorescence of X and Y chromosomes in morulae, whereas microwave decondensation resulted in loss of conceptuses from the slide. Both 4.0 and 8.5dpc conceptuses displayed mean sex ratios of 0.5. Post-natal FISH analysis allowed gender identification of pups that could not be sexed due to developmental abnormalities or partial cannibalism. FISH analysis of sperm and of multiple conceptuses or post-natal tissue provided a cost-effective, accurate alternative to PCR-based sex determination.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center