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Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;47(2):115-35. Epub 2007 Jan 4.

A comprehensive model for reproductive and developmental toxicity hazard identification: I. Development of a weight of evidence QSAR database.

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  • 1US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, USA.


A weight of evidence (WOE) reproductive and developmental toxicology (reprotox) database was constructed that is suitable for quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and human hazard identification of untested chemicals. The database was derived from multiple publicly available reprotox databases and consists of more than 10,000 individual rat, mouse, or rabbit reprotox tests linked to 2134 different organic chemical structures. The reprotox data were classified into seven general classes (male reproductive toxicity, female reproductive toxicity, fetal dysmorphogenesis, functional toxicity, mortality, growth, and newborn behavioral toxicity), and 90 specific categories as defined in the source reprotox databases. Each specific category contained over 500 chemicals, but the percentage of active chemicals was low, generally only 0.1-10%. The mathematical WOE model placed greater significance on confirmatory observations from repeat experiments, chemicals with multiple findings within a category, and the categorical relatedness of the findings. Using the weighted activity scores, statistical analyses were performed for specific data sets to identify clusters of categories that were correlated, containing similar profiles of active and inactive chemicals. The analysis revealed clusters of specific categories that contained chemicals that were active in two or more mammalian species (trans-species). Such chemicals are considered to have the highest potential risk to humans. In contrast, some specific categories exhibited only single species-specific activities. Results also showed that the rat and mouse were more susceptible to dysmorphogenesis than rabbits (6.1- and 3.6-fold, respectively).

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