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J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2007 Mar;36(1):56-65.

Subtypes of rumination in adolescence: associations between brooding, reflection, depressive symptoms, and coping.

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Department of Psychology, Westfield State College, 577 Western Avenue, Westfield, MA 01086, USA.


Prior research has indicated that rumination contributes to the maintenance or intensification of depressive symptoms among adults. This study examined associations between rumination and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Using a short-term longitudinal design, we evaluated relations between subtypes of rumination and both depressive symptoms and coping among a community sample of 168 adolescents (70 boys, 98 girls, age M= 13.58). Results provided support for brooding and self-reflective subtypes of rumination. Brooding, but not reflection, predicted the development of depressive symptoms over time, particularly for girls. Brooding was related to maladaptive disengagement coping strategies, whereas reflection was related to adaptive primary and secondary coping strategies. These results suggest that not all types of self-focus on emotion contribute to the maintenance or intensification of depressive symptoms.

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