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Laryngoscope. 2007 Jan;117(1):114-20.

Normative values of olfactory function testing using the 'sniffin' sticks'.

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Department of Otolaryngology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.



Quantitative olfactory assessment is often neglected in clinical practice, although olfactory loss can assist to diagnosis and may lead to significant morbidity. "Sniffin' Sticks" is a modern test of nasal chemosensory performance that is based on penlike odor-dispensing devices. It consists of three tests of olfactory function: odor threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification. The results of this test may be presented as a composite threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) score. The aim of this study was first to develop normative data of olfactory function for the Greek population using this test and second to relate olfactory performance to age, sex, and side examined.


The authors conducted a prospective clinical trial.


A total of 93 healthy subjects were included in the study, 48 males and 45 females, mean age of 44.5 years (range, 6-84 years).


A database of normal values for olfactory testing was established for the Greek population. Females performed better than males and older subjects performed less efficiently in all tests. We also found a right nostril advantage compared with the left. Additionally, scores obtained from bilateral presentation were similar with scores obtained from the nostril with the better performance.


The "Sniffin' Sticks" can be used effectively in the Greek population to evaluate olfactory performance. Mean values of olfactory tests obtained were better in comparison with data from settings located in central and northern Europe.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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