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J Pathol. 2007 Jan;211(2):114-23.

Hallmarks of telomeres in ageing research.

Author information

  • 1University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Cell Biology, Dallas, TX 75390-9039, USA. jerry.shay@utsouthwestern.edu

Abstract

Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences at the ends of linear chromosomes. Telomerase, a cellular reverse transcriptase, helps maintain telomere length in human stem cells, reproductive cells and cancer cells by adding TTAGGG repeats onto the telomeres. However, most normal human cells do not express telomerase and thus each time a cell divides some telomeric sequences are lost. When telomeres in a subset of cells become short (unprotected), cells enter an irreversible growth arrest state called replicative senescence. Cells in senescence produce a different constellation of proteins compared to normal quiescent cells. This may lead to a change in the homeostatic environment in a tissue-specific manner. In most instances cells become senescent before they can become cancerous; thus, the initial growth arrest induced by short telomeres may be thought of as a potent anti-cancer protection mechanism. When cells can be adequately cultured until they reach telomere-based replicative senescence, introduction of the telomerase catalytic protein component (hTERT) into telomerase-silent cells is sufficient to restore telomerase activity and extend cellular lifespan. Cells with introduced telomerase are not cancer cells, since they have not accumulated the other changes needed to become cancerous. This indicates that telomerase-induced telomere length manipulations may have utility for tissue engineering and for dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic diseases, including cancer.

PMID:
17200948
DOI:
10.1002/path.2090
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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