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J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 2;282(9):6588-96. Epub 2006 Dec 29.

Tissue-specific changes in the hydroxylysine content and cross-links of collagens and alterations in fibril morphology in lysyl hydroxylase 1 knock-out mice.

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Collagen Research Unit, University of Oulu, FIN-90014, Finland.


We have generated mice with targeted inactivation of the Plod1 gene for lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1). Its human mutations cause Ehlers-Danlos syndrome VIA (EDS VIA) characterized by muscular hypotonia, joint laxity, and kyphoscoliosis. The Plod1(-/-) mice are flaccid and have gait abnormalities. About 15% of them died because of aortic rupture and smooth muscle cells in non-ruptured Plod1(-/-) aortas showed degenerative changes. Collagen fibrils in the Plod1(-/-) aorta and skin had an abnormal morphology. The LH activity level in the Plod1(-/-) skin and aorta samples was 35-45% of that in the wild type. The hydroxylysine content was decreased in all the Plod1(-/-) tissues, ranging from 22% of that in the wild type in the skin to 75 and 86% in the femur and lung. The hydroxylysylpyridinoline crosslinks likewise showed decreases in all the Plod1(-/-) tissues, ranging from 28 and 33% of that in the wild type in the aorta and cornea to 47 and 59% in femur and tendon, while lysylpyridinolines were increased. The hydroxylysines found in the Plod1(-/-) collagens and their cross-links were evidently synthesized by the other two LH isoenzymes. Few data are available on abnormalities in EDS VIA tissues other than the skin. Plod1(-/-) mice offer an in vivo model for systematic analysis of the tissue-specific consequences of the lack of LH1 activity and may also provide a tool for analyzing the roles of connective tissue in muscle function and the complex interactions occurring in the proper assembly of the extracellular matrix.

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