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Small. 2006 Apr;2(4):561-8.

Template-assisted large-scale ordered arrays of ZnO pillars for optical and piezoelectric applications.

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Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle, Germany.


Spatially separated ZnO pillars, typically 300 nm in diameter and 2 microm in height, are fabricated via a template-directed approach that leads to long-range hexagonal order. The templates of Au nanodisk arrays are obtained by using metal membranes as a lithography mask. The growth of ZnO pillars is performed in a double-tube system through vapor diffusion-deposition. The growth mechanism of the pillars is studied in detail and is proposed to be a combination of vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-solid models. The piezoelectric and optical properties of single pillars are characterized using piezoresponse force microscopy and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. The pillars show strong excitonic emissions up to room temperature, which indicate a relatively low defect density and good crystalline quality. The obtained piezoelectric coefficient d(33) is (7.5+/-0.6) pm V(-1), which is to our knowledge the first reported value for a single nanopillar.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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