Send to

Choose Destination
Magn Reson Med. 2007 Jan;57(1):192-200.

Actual flip-angle imaging in the pulsed steady state: a method for rapid three-dimensional mapping of the transmitted radiofrequency field.

Author information

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.


A new method has been developed for fast image-based measurements of the transmitted radiofrequency (RF) field. The method employs an actual flip-angle imaging (AFI) pulse sequence that consists of two identical RF pulses followed by two delays of different duration (TR(1) < TR(2)). After each pulse, a gradient-echo (GRE) signal is acquired. It has been shown theoretically and experimentally that if delays TR(1) and TR(2) are sufficiently short and the transverse magnetization is completely spoiled, the ratio r = S(2)/S(1) of signal intensities S(1) and S(2), acquired at the beginning of the time intervals TR(1) and TR(2), depends on the flip angle (FA) of applied pulses as r = (1 + n * cos(FA))/(n + cos(FA)), where n = TR(2)/TR(1). The method allows fast 3D implementation and provides accurate B(1) measurements that are highly insensitive to T(1). The unique feature of the AFI method is that it uses a pulsed steady-state signal acquisition. This overcomes the limitation of previous methods that required long relaxation delays between sequence repetitions. The method has been shown to be useful for time-efficient whole-body B(1) mapping and correction of T(1) maps obtained using a variable FA technique in the presence of nonuniform RF excitation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center