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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov;1087:74-89.

Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

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Pace University, Department of Psychology, 41 Park Row, New York, NY 10038, USA.


Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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