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Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007 Feb;10(1):25-32. Epub 2006 Dec 28.

Prevalence of anxiety and depression during pregnancy in a private setting sample.

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University Hospital, Section of Epidemiology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.



To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for antenatal anxiety (AA) and antenatal depression (AD).


We performed a cross sectional study of 432 women attending a private clinic in the city of Osasco, São Paulo, from 5/27/1998 to 5/13/2002. The following instruments were used: Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), Beck depression inventory (BDI), and a questionnaire for socio-demographic and obstetric data. Inclusion criteria were: pregnant women with no past or present history of depression, psychiatric treatment, alcohol or drug abuse and no clinical and obstetric complications. The prevalence of AA, according to STAI, and AD, according to Beck Inventory, were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Odds ratios and 95% CI were used to examine the association between AA and AD and exposures variables.


The prevalence of AA, state and trait were 59.5 (95 CI%: 54.8:64.1%) and 45.3% (95% CI: 40.6:50.0), respectively. The prevalence of AD was 19.6 (95% CI:15.9:23.4). In the multivariate analysis, AA-trait (OR: 5.26; 95% CI 2.17:12.5, p < 0.001), AA-state (OR: 2.27; 95% CI 1.08:4.76, p = 0.02) and AD (OR: 2.43; 95% CI 1.40:4.34, p = 0.002) were associated with lower women's educational level. AA-trait (OR: 3.43; 95% CI 1.68:7.00, p = 0.001), AA-state (OR: 2.22; CI 95% 1.09:4.53, p = 0.02) and AD (OR: 2.82; CI 95% 1.35:5.97, p = 0.005) were also associated with not being married. AA-trait was associated with lower women's income (OR: 2.22; 95% CI 0.98:5.26, p = 0.05) and not being white (OR: 1.7; 95% CI 1.00:2.91, p = 0.04), while AD was associated with lower couple's income (OR: 2.43; 95% CI 1.40:4.34, p = 0.001) and greater number of previous abortions (OR: 2.21; 95% CI 1.23:3.97, p = 0.009).


Prevalence of AA and AD were high in this sample of women attending a private care setting, particularly AA state and trace. AA and AD were associated with similar socio-demographic and socio-economic risk factors, suggesting some common environmental stressors may be involved.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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