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Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007 Jan;13(1):1-4.

Antifungal immunity and adjuvant cytokine immune enhancement in cancer patients with invasive fungal infections.


Invasive fungal infections are common in severely immunosuppressed patients with cancer and in recipients of haematopoietic transplants. Response to antifungal therapy alone is often inadequate. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are critical for promoting innate and adaptive cellular antifungal immune responses. Recombinant cytokines, including granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interferon-gamma, have been studied as adjuvant therapies for severely immunosuppressed cancer patients with difficult-to-treat invasive mycoses. The limited clinical experience to date shows a possible benefit of these cytokines, and further controlled clinical trials are needed to validate their routine use in cancer patients and stem-cell transplant recipients with invasive fungal infections who are likely to have a poor response to antifungal drug therapy.

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