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Child Care Health Dev. 2007 Jan;33(1):28-39.

Measuring children's participation in recreation and leisure activities: construct validation of the CAPE and PAC.

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  • 1Thames Valley Children's Centre, London, ON, Canada.


There is a need for psychometrically sound measures of children's participation in recreation and leisure activities, for both clinical and research purposes. This paper provides information about the construct validity of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and its companion measure, Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC). These measures are appropriate for children and youth with and without disabilities between the ages of 6 and 21 years. They provide information about six dimensions of participation (i.e. diversity, intensity, where, with whom, enjoyment and preference) and two categories of recreation and leisure activities: (i) formal and informal activities; and (ii) five types of activities (recreational, active physical, social, skill-based and self-improvement). This paper presents information about the performance of the CAPE and PAC activity type scores using data from a study involving 427 children with physical disabilities between the ages of 6 and 15 years. Intensity, enjoyment and preference scores were significantly correlated with environmental, family and child variables, in expected ways. Predictions also were supported with respect to differences in mean scores for boys vs. girls, and children in various age groups. The information substantiates the construct validity of the measures. The clinical and research utility of the measures are discussed.

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