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Clin Exp Optom. 2007 Jan;90(1):5-19.

A review of astigmatism and its possible genesis.

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Contact Lens and Visual Optics Laboratory, School of Optometry, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.


Astigmatism is a refractive condition encountered commonly in clinical practice. This review presents an overview of research that has been carried out examining various aspects of this refractive error. We examine the components of astigmatism and the research into the prevalence and natural course of astigmatic refractive errors throughout life. The prevalence of astigmatism in various ethnic groups and diseases and syndromes is also discussed. We highlight the extensive investigations that have been conducted into the possible aetiology of astigmatism, however, no single model or theory of the development of astigmatism has been proven conclusively. Theories of the development of astigmatism based on genetics, extraocular muscle tension, visual feedback and eyelid pressure are considered. Observations and evidence from the literature supporting and contradicting these hypotheses are presented. Recent advances in technology such as wavefront sensors and videokeratoscopes have led to an increased understanding of ocular astigmatism and with continued improvements in technology, our knowledge of astigmatism and its genesis should continue to grow.

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