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Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 Dec;15 Suppl 1:I30-7.

Which factors impact on clinician-rated impairment in children with ADHD?

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Section of Psychiatry Division of Pathology and Neuroscience, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UK.

Erratum in

  • Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009 Mar;18(3):194-6.



To describe the associations between a range of demographic, family and clinical factors and clinician-rated measures of global impairment in children with ADHD symptoms obtained at the baseline assessment in the ADHD Observational Research in Europe (ADORE) study.


Global impairment was measured by clinicians using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS). Associations with independent variables were investigated using forward-stepwise regression models.


For the CGI-S and CGAS analyses, complete data sets were available for 1,265 and 985 children, respectively. The baseline mean CGI-S score in this population was 4.4 (SD 0.9) and the mean CGAS score was 55.0 (SD 10.6). Factors significantly associated with increased impairment on both outcome measures were: increased severity of ADHD symptoms, increased peer relationship problems and presence of oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder. Also, the presence of anxiety and/or depression and the presence of somatic symptoms were associated with increased impairment on CGI-S,while family health problems and premature birth were associated with increased impairment on CGAS.


The severity of clinician-rated impairment in the ADORE sample is increased by the presence of disruptive behaviour problems and emotional problems, somatic symptoms, peer relationship difficulties, family health problems and premature birth.

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