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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Dec 19;48(12):2531-8. Epub 2006 Nov 28.

Insulin resistance as a determinant of platelet activation in obese women.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Therapy, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

We tested the hypothesis that insulin resistance, per se, contributes to increased platelet activation in obesity, independently of underlying inflammation.

BACKGROUND:

Obesity, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis are closely linked phenomena associated with low-grade inflammation. Obesity is associated with persistent platelet activation in otherwise healthy women.

METHODS:

We performed a cross-sectional study in 40 obese and 20 non-obese healthy women using urinary thromboxane metabolite excretion as a non-invasive index of platelet activation. An index of insulin sensitivity, S(I), and plasma adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and CD40 ligand (CD40L) levels were measured.

RESULTS:

Obese women had significantly (p < 0.0001) higher 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11-dehydro-TXB2) excretion (median 718 vs. 211 pg/mg creatinine), CRP (1.13 vs. 0.48 mg/l), and CD40L levels (4.45 vs. 0.90 ng/ml) than controls. Obese women had lower S(I) (median 2.51 vs. 5.0 10(4) min(-1)/[microU/ml], p < 0.002) and adiponectin (6.3 vs. 10 microg/ml, p < 0.01) than control subjects. On multiple regression analysis, waist-to-hip ratio (beta = 0.27, p < 0.05) and S(I) (beta = -0.72, p < 0.04) predicted 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion rate, independently of adiponectin, CRP, CD40L, and lipid patterns. In order to investigate the cause-effect relationship of these associations, we examined the effects of a 12-week weight loss program or a 3-week pioglitazone treatment on urinary 11-dehydro-TXB2 in 10 women with impaired S(I) and visceral obesity. Successful weight loss (0.6 kg loss/week) achieved in 5 subjects was associated with increased S(I) (+92%) and decreased CD40L (-27%), CRP (-37%), and 11-dehydro-TXB2 (-53%) (p < 0.05). Consistently, improvement of insulin sensitivity achieved with pioglitazone significantly decreased urinary 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion (-43%, p < 0.05) without changes in body weight.

CONCLUSIONS:

Insulin resistance is a major determinant of platelet activation in female obesity.

PMID:
17174194
DOI:
10.1016/j.jacc.2006.08.040
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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