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Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Dec;75(6):1216-22.

Epidemiology and spatial analysis of malaria in the Northern Peruvian Amazon.

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US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru.


A retrospective surveillance study was conducted to examine the micro-geographic variation of malaria incidence in three malaria-endemic communities in the Northern Peruvian Amazon. The annual malaria risk rate (per 100) ranged from 38% to 47% for Plasmodium vivax and from 15% to 18% for P. falciparum. Spatial clusters were found for P. vivax in Padre Cocha, Manacamiri, and Zungaro Cocha, and for P. falciparum only in Padre Cocha. Spatial-temporal clusters showed that the highest monthly number of P. vivax cases varied every year from December to March in 1996-1997 and from February to June in 1998-1999, and for P. falciparum from November to April in 1996-1997 and from January to April in 1998-1999. Our results suggest a constant presence of high-risk areas (hot spots) for malaria infection in periods with high or low malaria incidence. Modest targeted control efforts directed at identified high-risk areas may have significant impact on malaria transmission in this region.

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