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J Cell Biochem. 2007 May 15;101(2):451-65.

Centrosomal localization of DNA damage checkpoint proteins.

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Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Jena, Germany.


During mitosis, the phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) family-related DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR were found on the centrosomes of human cells. ATRIP, an interaction partner of ATR, as well as Chk1 and Chk2, the downstream targets of ATR or ATM, were also localized to the centrosomes. Surprisingly, the DNA-PK inhibitor vanillin enhanced the level of ATM on centrosomes. Accordingly, DNA-PKcs, the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK, was also found on the centrosomes. Vanillin altered the phosphorylation of Chk2 in the centrosomes and in whole cell extracts. Nucleoplasmic ATM co-immunoprecipitated with Ku70/86, the DNA binding subunits of DNA-PK, while vanillin diminished this association. Vanillin did not affect microtubule polymerization at the centrosomes but, surprisingly, caused a transient enhancement of alpha-tubulin foci in the nucleus. Interestingly, gamma-tubulin was also present in the nucleus and co-immunoprecipitated with ATR or BRCA1. DNA damage led to a reduction of the mentioned checkpoint proteins on the centrosomes but increased the level of gamma-tubulin at this organelle. Taken together, these results indicate that DNA damage checkpoint proteins may control the formation of gamma-tubulin and/or the kinetics of microtubule formation at the centrosomes, and thereby couple them to the DNA damage response.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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