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Eur J Pediatr. 2007 Apr;166(4):303-9. Epub 2006 Dec 14.

Growth in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets.

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Division of Pediatric Kidney Diseases, Hospital Cruces, Vizcaya, Spain.


Growth failure appears frequently in children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR) due to hypophosphatemia, disease severity, body disproportion, and primary bone abnormality. Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) increases phosphate tubular reabsorption and phosphate level in blood and, thus, constitutes an attractive but controversial therapy in short children with XLHR, those efficacy was demonstrated in small uncontrolled series. Our aim was to report our experience regarding growth in XLHR. Twenty-seven children with XLHR--20 girls, seven boys--diagnosed at a median (md) of 1.46 years of age, (range 0.39-8.5 years), were studied at 10.12 years of age (1.58-18.56), md (range). All received oral treatment with phosphate and calcitriol. At the first visit, grouped Z-height was -1; (-4.58; 0.54) md (range). After 5 years' follow-up (0.92-15.6), Z-height was -0.91 (- 4.56; 0.17), not different from that at baseline (P = 0.465). In 16 children entirely controlled in our program upon presentation, a "catch up" phenomenon after the rickets had healed (P = 0.823) or throughout the long-term was not observed (P = 0.995). Eight patients had a Z-height </= -2SD at the last visit, and impaired linear growth was associated with age >2 years at diagnosis, male gender and non-adherence to treatment. Four children, all boys, received rhGH, and in two cases with sufficient follow up stature normalized. No rhGH side effects were observed, and phosphate and calcitriol doses remained stable. Linear growth failure appeared in a third of XLHR children. Efforts need to be made to reduce the age of diagnosis and to improve adherence to treatment. Treatment with rhGH should be considered early, after the rickets has been controlled, in those patients with impaired growth or delayed diagnosis.

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